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人权保障语境下美国干涉新疆事务的探析——以新疆人口为视角的调查研究报告

信息作者:  信息日期:2021-01-04 19:03:20

作者:手机AG真人娱乐app马克思主义学院 祖力亚提·司马义 张雅茜

人口问题始终是人类社会共同面对的基础性、全局性、战略性的问题,随着经济社会的发展和科学技术的进步,人们对人口问题的认识也不断变化。在联合国的倡导下,各国政府、国际组织、非政府组织多次召开有关人口问题的国际会议,推动对人口问题的共同关注,实现对人口发展的共同认识,共同促进人口发展。1994年,联合国在开罗举行的国际人口与发展大会上,通过《1994年人口与发展开罗文件》即《关于国际人口与发展行动纲领》,明确人口、持续经济增长和可持续发展之间的相互关系。《关于国际人口与发展行动纲领》的提出,不仅意味着人口与发展之间存在着密不可分的关系,同时也标志着促进人口发展与实现可持续发展需要共同推进。基于此,人口发展不仅指人口数量、素质、结构和分布的变化及其相互关系的发展变化,更涉及人口与经济、社会、资源、环境之间的互动关系变化。

自新中国成立的70多年以来,中国政府在部署经济发展战略、制定社会发展政策、考察资源环境问题时,无不从人口视角出发,始终重视并调节着人口与经济、社会、资源、环境等诸要素之间的关系。新疆作为中国的一部分,新疆地区的人口状况同全国各地的人口状况一样,始终是中国政府的工作之重。当前,中国新疆经济持续发展、社会和谐稳定、人民安居乐业,正处于历史上最好的繁荣发展时期。然而,美国为了达到自己不可告人的目的,以人权为借口多次编造“侵犯少数民族人权”的谎言。在西方构陷中国新疆的舆论攻势中,某些学者挂以学术之名,却不行科学之实。2020年6月,德国学者郑国恩(Adrian Zenz)在美国詹姆斯敦基金会发表的一篇名为《论中国在新疆强制计划生育和强制绝育计划》的研究报告(后简称“研究报告”)中,充斥着大量罔顾事实、颠倒黑白的言论,贯穿着一系列言之不详、来历不明的信息数据,从人口角度再次极力抹黑中国新疆。

一、揭露以“真相”掩盖的谎言

谎言是以欺骗为目的且非事实性的话语。尽管美国一些政客深信“谎言重复一千遍就会成为‘真理’”,然而以所谓的“真相”掩盖的谎言,必将被事实的真相所戳穿。近年来,美国一些政客多次以人权为由,通过援引一些反华学者的虚假研究报告,不断以其所谓的中国新疆、香港等问题为由,粗暴干涉中国内政。在美国国务卿蓬佩奥多次发表的涉疆言论中,数次引用反华学者郑国恩的一些所谓新疆的“研究报告”。因此,下文将从郑国恩于2020年6月在美国詹姆斯顿基金会发表的最新“研究报告”入手,通过其“发现”的新疆人口的变化,来解析郑国恩本人及其思想观点,从而进一步了解美国一些政客的别有用心。

1.拆穿谎言:认识郑国恩(Adrian Zenz)“学者”

这份“研究报告”在开篇的编者说明中,对作者郑国恩有这样的介绍阐述:“郑国恩博士是研究中国政府对中国的西藏和新疆西部地区政策的全球领先学者之一”(注:郑国恩的研究报告。)。从编者说明的介绍来看,既然郑国恩博士是该研究领域的全球领先学者之一,其学术影响力应该不凡。然而,从郑国恩以往的“研究成果”来看,在近几年时间里,他炮制出多个有关新疆的“研究报告”,其中涉及“新疆关押超100万维吾尔族人”的荒缪结论。此外,再从国外媒体对该学者的介绍来看,据美国独立新闻网站“灰色地带”的相关文章披露,郑国恩实则是一名极右原教旨主义基督徒、福音派宗教狂热者,是美国政府于1983年成立的极右翼组织“共产主义受害者纪念基金会”的所谓中国问题的高级研究员,同时也是美国情报机构操纵设立的“新疆教培中心研究课题组”的骨干。基于以上分析,郑国恩可以说是一名在美国支持下发表反华言论的“学者”。对于“郑国恩博士是研究中国政府对中国的西藏和新疆西部地区政策的全球领先学者之一”这样的虚假评价,世人更是心知肚明。

2.揭穿谎言:细看美国詹姆斯顿基金会的编者说明

编者,一般指文章或研究报告所发表期刊的编纂人员,编者说明则是编纂人员对即将发表的文章或报告作出的简要说明。任何具有理论意义或实践意义的文章或报告在最终发表前会由发表期刊的编辑审阅,这个审阅过程涉及对文章或报告的真实性、科学性、现实性等要素的考核。然而,在2020年6月的这份最新“研究报告”中,编者说明谈到郑国恩的“研究报告”,称“这是研究中国政府强制压制维吾尔族人口出生率的报告,政府大规模实施强制性节育和绝育的措施,旨在减少新疆维吾尔族人口,从而促进维吾尔族更快地融入‘中华民族’”。( 注:郑国恩的研究报告。)然而,根据统计数据显示,2018年新疆年末总人口为2486.76万人。从2010年至2018年间,新疆地区维吾尔族人口从1017.15万人增长到1271.84万人,增加254.69万人,增长25.04%;汉族人口从882.99万人增长到900.68万人,增加17.69万人,增长2.0%。在详实的数据面前,编者说明中提到的“中国政府强制压制维吾尔族人口出生率”之说不知从何而来,不禁让人细思美国詹姆斯顿基金会编者对其发表期刊和文章的审核标准。

中国是统一的多民族国家,各民族在共同缔造、发展、巩固、统一祖国的历史中交融汇聚成多元一体的中华民族。中华民族和各民族的关系是一个大家庭和家庭成员的关系。新疆作为中国的多民族聚居地区之一,新疆各民族在中华民族大家庭中共同生产生活,经济上相互依存,文化上兼收并蓄,情感上相互亲近。在中华民族大家庭中,新疆的维吾尔族与其他各民族手足相亲、守望相助,何需进行编者说明中提到的“促进维吾尔族更快地融入‘中华民族’”之举这样的无稽之谈。综合以上分析,这样一份不以事实为依据的编者说明,其用心昭然若揭。

3.看破谎言:详读郑国恩的观点

以人口为视角进行的相关研究作为考察地方人口数量、素质、结构、分布以及与经济社会发展相关的重要指标之一,具有重要的实践意义和现实作用。因此,任何以人口为视角进行的相关研究,不仅要坚持研究的科学性、前瞻性、可持续性,更要坚守研究的客观性、公正性、严谨性,只有以客观事实为依托的科学研究才能准确反映人口的现实状况。

从郑国恩这份“研究报告”介绍的主旨概要来看,其中的每一条反华论点无不被其“精致”的包装成所谓的“研究发现”。他也正是抓住了人口发展状况对地区发展的重要性,故而不惜违背科学精神,极力编织着一条条谎言。在这份“研究报告”中,以新疆地区人口状况为切入点,用足“功夫”对新疆地区的人口状况编织着最为可耻的谎言:

谎言一,郑国恩在其“研究报告”中称“通过对政府文件的系统分析,自2015年起,新疆的人口自然增长率急剧下降”(注:郑国恩的研究报告。)。

根据国家统计局和新疆维吾尔自治区统计局公布的统计数据,事实上,从2015年至2017年,新疆的人口自然增长率基本稳定在11‰以上。这一事实数据与郑国恩所说的“自2015年起,新疆的人口自然增长率急剧下降”这一论点不相符合,也使得其在“研究报告”的外壳下编制的谎言不攻自破。较之前3年的人口自然增长率来看,尽管2018年新疆的人口自然增长率下降至6.13‰,但是从全国人口自然增长率的平均水平来看,新疆地区的人口自然增长率仍处在较高水平,并不存在郑国恩所言的急剧下降。人口的自然增长率作为反映人口发展速度的重要指标,从近几年全国人口自然增长率的平均水平来看,2018年新疆6.13‰的人口自然增长率不存在郑国恩所言的不合理。

表1:2015年—2018年人口自然增长率情况表 单位:

数据来源:国家统计局( http://data.stats.gov.cn/easyquery.htm?cn=C01。),新疆维吾尔自治区统计局

谎言二,郑国恩在其“研究报告”中称“2018年人口自然增长率直线下降:所有少数民族地区均降至4.06‰,其中喀什与和田地区的增长率为2.58‰。”(注:郑国恩的研究报告。)。

然而,事实却并非如此。根据新疆维吾尔自治区统计局公布的统计数据,从2018年的人口自然增长率来看,新疆全区的人口自然增长率是6.13‰。在少数民族人口占多数的新疆南疆四地州中,克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州11.45‰、喀什地区6.93‰、阿克苏地区5.67‰、和田地区2.96‰。其中,除了和田地区以外,克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州、喀什地区和阿克苏地区2018年的人口自然增长率均高于郑国恩“研究报告”中所谓的“2018年少数民族地区人口自然增长率为4.06‰”的这一数值。另外,南疆四地州中的喀什地区(6.93‰)、和田地区(2.96‰)的人口自然增长率也与郑国恩“研究报告”谎称的2.58‰这一数值不相符合。可见,模糊数据来源、缺乏真实性已成为郑国恩的特点和独有写作方式。

表2:2018年全国及部分地区的人口自然增长率情况表 单位:

数据来源:国家统计局,新疆维吾尔自治区统计局

谎言三,郑国恩在其“研究报告”中提到,“2018年,和田地区某地的汉族人口增长率比维吾尔族的人口增长率高出近8倍”。(注:郑国恩的研究报告。)

郑国恩在其“研究报告”中谈到汉族的净人口变化率增至7.42‰时用的是“estimate”一词,其意为“估计、推算”。或许是郑国恩自己也为自己的谎言心虚,也只能用含糊其辞的话语继续掩盖着自己的谎言。新疆作为多民族聚居的地区,在新疆除了汉族和维吾尔族以外,还生活着其他的众多民族。就新疆的维吾尔族人口和汉族人口的变化情况来看,从2010年至2018年,维吾尔族人口不仅没有如郑国恩所言的减少,而是呈上升趋势。据统计,2010-2018年,新疆年末总人口从2181.58万人上升至2486.76万人,增加305.18万人,增长13.99%。具体而言,少数民族人口从1298.59万人上升至1586.08万人,增加287.49万人,增长22.14%;其中,维吾尔族人口从1017.15万人上升至1271.84万人,增加254.69万人,增长25.04%。同一时期,汉族人口从2010年的882.99万人上升至2018年的900.68万人,增加17.69万人,增长2.0%。综上,维吾尔族人口的增幅不仅高于全疆人口的增幅,也高于少数民族人口的增幅,更明显高于汉族人口的增幅。

谎言四,郑国恩在其“研究报告”中称“喀什地区与和田地区的人口净增长率低,仅有0.22‰,所有少数民族县的人口净增长率为-0.25‰,因而从总人口的增加可以估计多数地区的汉族的人口净增长率上升了7.42‰”(注:郑国恩的研究报告)。

在揭穿郑国恩的第三个谎言时,已对新疆40年分民族的人口比例进行过详细描述,这里不再做重复赘述。可以肯定的是,郑国恩再次提到的“从总人口的增加可以估计多数地区的汉族的人口净增长率为7.42‰”的这一推断毫无根据,既无事实依据又无数据支撑。对于郑国恩提到的人口净增长率偏低,根据新疆维吾尔自治区统计局公布的统计数据,单从人口自然变动情况来看,2018年新疆南疆四地州的各市、县的人口自然增长率均为正增长。根据表3中新疆南疆四地州各市、县的人口自然增长率数据计算可得,对于南疆四地州的28个县,其人口自然增长率的均值为4.80‰。分地区后具体来看,喀什地区辖下的11个县,其人口自然增长率的均值为5.53‰;阿克苏地区辖下的7个县,其人口自然增长率的均值为4.48‰;和田地区辖下的7个县,其人口自然增长率的均值为2.94‰;克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州辖下的3个县,其人口自然增长率的均值为7.25‰。

基于以上分析,无论是从南疆四地州28个县的人口自然增长率的均值(4.80‰)来看,还是分别从四地州所辖下县的人口自然增长率的均值分析,都无法得出郑国恩所言的“所有少数民族县的人口净增长率为-0.25‰”。就喀什地区与和田地区的事实情况来看,也与郑国恩所谓的“喀什地区与和田地区的人口净增长率低,仅有0.22‰”大相径庭。通过大肆引用不实数据来充实以构陷为目的的“研究报告”,极其有违科学研究精神。

3:2018年新疆南疆地区人口自然增长率情况表 单位:

数据来源:新疆维吾尔自治区统计局

谎言五,郑国恩在其“研究报告”中说到“2020年,其中一个维吾尔族地区(克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州)设定了前所未有的近乎为零的人口增长目标,即每千人中仅新增1.05人,而2018年则是每千人中增11.45人”。(注:郑国恩的研究报告。)

事实再次证明,郑国恩再次不惜篡改克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州相关文件的数字以完成自己的“研究报告”。从图2的克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州的卫健委预算报告可以看出,在一级指标“项目完成指标”中,对于二级指标下“质量指标”中的“人口自然增长率”设定的是1.05%。这里值得注意的是,该文件中用的单位是%。换句话说,当%转化为‰时,克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州文件中提到的人口自然增长率就应该是10.5‰。在前文揭穿的谎言二中已经提到,相较于2018年克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州的人口自然增长率(11.45‰),该文件中设定的人口自然增长率值仅降低0.95个千分比。因此,对于郑国恩谈到的“每千人中仅新增1.05人,而2018年则是每千人中增11.45人”这一论述,实则是以混淆人口增长计量单位为“手法”来编造其“研究报告”中的谎言。

1: 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州卫健委项目支出绩效目标表

数据来源:克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州卫健委报告截图

从以上郑国恩提及的“观点”内容来看,郑国恩采用恣意篡改数据、混淆计量单位、模糊概念和来源等写作方法,使得“研究报告”的“谎言”看起来极具真实性。另外,郑国恩谈到的政府文件不仅没有标明是何文件、文件出处,更缺乏对文件可靠性和真实性的基本介绍,甚至在全文中也没有再对有关政府文件进行过进一步的阐述,这无疑使得其整个研究进行的所谓“系统分析”的源头已经模糊不清、来路不明,甚至不知是否是为支撑自己的论点而编造的数据来源。

二、呈现以事实为依据的真相

人口变量作为经济增长的内生性因素,与经济社会发展存在着紧密关系,人口状况对优化资源配置、促进贸易流通、增进经济活力均具有积极的作用。新疆经济社会发展关乎新疆各族人民的福祉,而各民族人口状况在新疆经济社会发展中具有十分重要的地位。

1.从人口增长趋势来看新疆人口状况

根据统计数据显示,从新疆年末总人口的变化趋势来看,2010年新疆年末总人口为2181.58万人,2018年新疆年末总人口为2486.76万人。相较于2010年,2018年的新疆年末总人口增加了305.18万人。从新疆维吾尔族人口的变化趋势来看,2010年新疆维吾尔族人口数为1017.15万人,2018年新疆维吾尔族人口数为1271.84万人。相较于2010年,2018年的新疆维吾尔族人口数增加了254.69万人。从新疆汉族人口的变化趋势来看,2010年新疆汉族人口数为882.99万人,2018年新疆汉族人口数为900.68万人。相较于2010年,2018年的新疆汉族人口数增加了17.69万人。可见,无论是新疆的年末总人口,还是维吾尔族人口和汉族人口,均呈上升趋势。

另外,从新疆各族群众的健康发展状况来看。新中国成立后,医疗卫生体系从无到有、从有到精,新疆各民族人口的身体素质得到巨大改善。据新疆维吾尔自治区统计局的相关统计数据,新疆的人口死亡率由1949年的20.82‰下降到2018年的4.56‰,下降16.26个千分点。由此可见,新疆各族群众健康权得到的有力保障。

2.从人口性别结构看新疆人口状况

从性别视角出发,根据新疆维吾尔自治区统计局公布的统计数据,纵观1978年—2018年这40年之间,新疆地区的男女构成比例浮动较小,较为稳定。从表5可见,在1978年到2017年,新疆地区的男性人口数都略多于女性人口数。在2018年,新疆地区的女性人口数40年间首次超过男性人口数。据统计,2018年,新疆地区的男性人口数为1239.83万人,占比49.86%;女性人口数为1246.93万人,占比50.14%。但是,纵观这40年的人口性别构成情况,男女比例基本上都较为平衡。因此可以认为,在新疆基本不存在性别选择。

4:主要年份新疆地区按性别区分的人口数构成 单位:万人,%

数据来源:新疆维吾尔自治区统计局

3.从人口受教育程度看新疆人口发展状况

教育兴则国家兴,教育强则国家强。高等教育是一个国家或地区发展水平和发展潜力的重要标志。目前,新疆正处于发展的最好时期,对科学知识和优秀人才的需要,比以往任何时候都更为迫切。从新疆维吾尔自治区统计局公布的数据来看,1978年新疆普通高等学校在校学生人数为10229人,到2018年这个数值上升至398751人。也就是说,在1978年至2018年期间,新疆地区普通高等学校在校学生人数增加了388522人。从历史发展的纵向脉络来看,如图3所示,自1978年起,新疆地区普通高等学校在校学生人数逐年递增,尤其是2000年后,基本呈直线上升的趋势。这一事实数据也间接表明新疆各族群众受教育权利得到有力保障。

2:1978年——2018年新疆地区普通高等学校在校学生人数

数据来源:新疆维吾尔自治区统计局

三、总结

尊重和保障人权是中国的宪法原则,目前,中国新疆的人权事业不断取得新的发展和进步。无论是出于意识形态偏见或是别有用心的目的,西方某些政客和反华“学者”竭力编织的各种涉疆涉华谎言,不管如何美化包装,终究会被事实戳穿。本文通过对新疆人口状况进行的事实梳理,清晰呈现了新疆人口的真实状况。这无疑是对西方某些政客和“学者”以新疆人口为视角对新疆人权恶意抹黑的最为有力的回击。

人权作为历史条件下的产物,将随着历史条件的发展而发展。当前,新疆正处于历史上最好的繁荣发展时期。新疆经济的快速发展为新疆的人权事业奠定了坚实的物质基础,新疆社会的和谐稳定为新疆的人权事业提供了良好的社会条件,新疆人口状况的良好态势更是新疆各族群众人权不断得到保障和进步的有力证明。推动人权的不断发展进步,是新疆各族人民的共同奋斗目标。新疆各族人民将继续共同团结奋斗,共同提升新疆各族群众人权的保障水平,共同推动新疆各族群众人权的发展进步。


An analysis of American interference in Xinjiang affairs under the context of human rights protection

A research reportfrom the perspective of Xinjiang’spopulation

By Zuliyati Simayi and Zhang Yaxi,School of Marxism Xinjiang University


Population is afundamental, overarching and strategic issue faced by human society. People's understanding of population issues has always been changing with the development of economy and society and the progress of science and technology. Under the initiative of the United Nations,national governments, international organizations and non-governmental organizations have held a large number of international conferences on population issuesin order to increase common concern over population issues, realize shared perception of populationdevelopmentand jointly promote population development. At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, the United Nations adopted theProgramme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, clarifying the correlation among population, sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The adoption of theProgramme of Action not only indicated an inseparable relationship between population and development, but also means that promoting population development while realizing sustainable development is of great necessity. Therefore, population development not only refers to the changes in number, quality, structure and distribution of population and the development of theirrelations, but also involves the changes in the interaction between population and economy, society, resources and environment.

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China over 70 years ago, the Chinese government has always been adopting a perspective of population in the deployment of economic development strategies, formulation of social development policies and investigation of resource and environmental issues, attaching importance to and adjusting the relationships between population and economy, society, resource, environment and other factors. Xinjiang belongs to China. The populationsituation inXinjiang, like that of other parts ofChina, has always beenapriority of the Chinese government. At present, Xinjiang is in a golden period of prosperity and development, with sustained economic development, harmonious and stable society, and people living and working in peace and contentment. However, in order to realize its ulterior political purpose, the United States has repeatedly fabricated lies of China "violating human rights of ethnic minorities" under the pretext of human rights. In the western countries' public opinion campaign againstChina’sXinjiang, some scholars have conducted a lot of academic activities disregardingthe reality in Xinjiang. In June 2020, the German scholar Adrian Zenz published a research report through Jamestown Foundation titled Sterilizations, IUDs, and Mandatory Birth Control: The CCP's Campaign to Suppress Uygur Birthrates in Xinjiang (later referred to as "the report"), which is filled with distorted facts, undetailed information and data of unknown sources. It can be regarded as another attempt to defameXinjiang from the perspective of population.

I. Expose lies disguised with so-called "truth"

A lie is a nonfactual statement intended to deceive. Some American politicians believe that "a lie told a thousand timesbecomesthe truth", but the lies disguised with so-called "truth" are bound to be exposed by the truth itself. In recent years, some U.S. politicians have repeatedly used human rights as an excuse to wantonly interfere in China's internal affairs, citing fact-distorting research reports written by anti-China scholars concerning the so-called issues of Xinjiang and Hong Kong, etc. For example, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo quoted the anti-China scholarAdrian Zenz's so-called research reports on Xinjiang for multiple times in his Xinjiang-related remarks. Therefore, the following parts will begin with an analysis onAdrian Zenz's latest "report" published in June 2020 by theJamestown Foundation, and then on Adrian Zenz himself and his viewpoints according tothepopulation changes in Xinjiang "discovered" by Adrian Zenz, so as to further understand the ulterior motives ofsomeAmerican politicians.

1. Know Adrian Zenz as a "scholar"

In the Editor's Note of the report, Dr.Adrian Zenz is described as "one of the world's leading scholars on People's Republic of China (PRC) government policies towards the country's western regions of Tibet and Xinjiang."( Quoted from Adrian Zenz's report.) If that were true, Dr.Adrian Zenz should be a scholar of extraordinary academic influence. However, in recent years, he has produced several "research reports" on Xinjiang and drawn the absurd conclusion that Xinjiang's total re-education internment figure is estimated atjustoveronemillion.Also, we canknow more about him through the information given by other foreign media. According to an article published on the independent news website "The Grayzone",AdrianZenz is actually a far-right fundamentalist Christian and evangelical zealot. He is a senior fellow in China studies at the far-right organization named Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, which was established by the U.S. government in 1983. He is also the backbone of the Research Group on Xinjiang's Education and Training Centers, an academic body allegedly set up and controlled by U.S. intelligence agencies. Based on the above analysis, we can sayAdrian Zenz is a "scholar" supported by the United States to make anti-China remarks.The opinion thatAdrian Zenz isone of the world's leading scholars on Chinapoliciestowards Tibet and Xinjiang is obviously untenable.

2. A closer look at the Editor's Note of the report published by Jamestown Foundation

An editor is a person who compiles a journal in which an article or report is published, and an editor's note is a brief introduction to the article or report to be published. Any article or report with theoretical or practical significance will be reviewed by the editor beforepublication. This review process involves an evaluation of the authenticity, scientificity, practicality, etc. However, inAdrian Zenz’slatest report published in June 2020, the editor commented that the report is a detailed analysis of "China's measures to forcibly suppress birthrates among ethnic Uygur communities", including "the mass application of mandatory birth control and sterilizations", so as to"reduce the Uygur population in Xinjiang relative to the numbers of ethnic Han Chinese—and thereby topromote more rapid Uygur assimilation into the 'Chinese Nation-Race'."(uoted fromAdrian Zenz's report.) However, according to the statistics, the total population at the end of 2018 was 24.8676 million inXinjiang.From 2010 to 2018, the population ofethnic Uygur in Xinjiang has increased from 10.1715 million to 12.7184 million, an increase of 2.5469 million, an increase of 25.04%; the populationof ethnicHans increased from 8.8299 million to 9.0068million, an increase of 0.1769 million an increase of 2.0 %. Therefore,I wonder where does the editor's statement of Chinese government intends to "reduce the Uygurpopulationin Xinjiang" come from.We are also wonderingwhether thereview standardsapplied bythe Jamestown Foundation editorsare reliable.

China is a unified country of multi-ethnicity. In the course of jointly building, developing, consolidating and reunifying the country, different ethnic groups have converged into a diversified yet integrated Chinese nation. The relationship between the Chinese nation andallethnic groups is that of a big family and its members. Xinjiang is one of the multi-ethnic areas in China with local ethnicities live and work together in the big family of the Chinese nation. They are economically interdependent, culturally connected and emotionallyintimate. In the big family of the Chinese nation, the ethnic Uygurs and other ethnic groups have shown mutual affinity and mutual assistance to each other. The editor's assumption that China is "promoting more rapid Uygur assimilation into the 'Chinese Nation-Race'" is sheer nonsense. To sum up, the Editor's Note rests on no fact andthe hiddenintentions are easy to see.

3. An analysis of Adrian Zenz's arguments

Researches conducted from the perspective of population are of great practicalsignificance since they function as an important indicator of studying the population quantity,quality, structure, distribution and economic and social development in local areas. Therefore, such researches should not only be scientific, forward-looking and sustainable, but also objective, impartial and precise. Only scientific research based onobjectivefacts can accurately reflect theactualpopulation situation .

InAdrian Zenz's report, each of the anti-China arguments is carefullyembellished as so-called "research findings". He clearly understands the importance of population development to regional development, so he tried his best to fabricate a series of lies, disregarding the spirit of science. In the report,Adrian Zenz began his exposition with Xinjiang's population situation and put much effort on fabricating the following outrageous lies.

Lie No.1: "Natural population growth in Xinjiang has declined dramatically"(Quoted from Adrian Zenz's report.) since 2015.

According to the statistics released by the National Bureau of Statistics and Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, from 2015 to 2017, Xinjiang’s natural population growth rate remained stable at over 11‰. The above statementof Adrian Zenz is not consistent with official statistics. Compared with the natural population growth rates of the previous 3 years, although the natural population growth rate in Xinjiang dropped to 6.13‰ in 2018, it is still at a relatively high level in relation to the national average level. There is no such dramatic decline as Adrian Zenzstated. Natural population growth rate is an important indicator to reflect the speed ofpopulationdevelopment. Compared with the average national natural population growth rates in recent years, Xinjiang's growth rate of 6.13‰ in 2018 is in a reasonable range.

Table 1: Natural population growth rates from 2015 to 2018Unit:‰

Sources: National Bureau of Statistics(http://data.stats.gov.cn/easyquery.htm?cn=C01) andStatistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Lie No.2:"In 2018, natural population growth plummeted: to 4.06‰ in all minority regions and 2.58‰ in Kashgar and Hotan."(Quoted fromAdrian Zenz's report.)

This is not true. According to statistics released by Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the natural population growth rate of the whole region in 2018 is 6.13‰. Among the four prefectures in south Xinjiang with a majority of ethnic minorities, thegrowthrate inKizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture is 11.45‰, Kashgar 6.93‰, Aksu 5.67‰, and Hotan 2.96‰. With the exception of Hotan, the natural population growth rates in Kizilsu, Kashgar and Aksu in 2018 were all higher than the figure of 4.06‰ mentioned in Adrian Zenz's report. Besides, the natural population growth rates inKashgar (6.93‰) and Hotan (2.96‰) are also different from the figure of 2.58‰ falsely stated in the report. It is clear that being vague about data sources and lacking authenticity have become a unique writing style of Adrian Zenz.

Table 2: Natural population growth rate nationwide andpartiallyin 2018Unit : ‰

Sources: National Bureau of Statistics and Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Lie No.3: "Population growth rates in a Uygur region where Han constitute the majority were nearly 8 times higher than in the surrounding rural Uygur regions (in 2018)."(Quoted fromAdrian Zenz's report.)

When mentioning the net population change rate for the Hans have increased to 7.42‰, Adrian Zenz used the word "estimate", which means it is an inaccurate assumption. PerhapsAdrian Zenz feels guilty about his lies, so he used vague terms to cover them up. As is known, Xinjiang is a multi-ethnic region where many ethnic groups reside in addition to the Hans and theUygurs. The Uygur population in Xinjiang from2010 to 2018 did not decrease asAdrian Zenz said, but showed an upward trend.

According to statistics, from 2010 to 2018, the total population of Xinjiang at the end of the year rose from 21.8158 million to 24.8676 million, an increase of 3.0518 million or 13.99%. Specifically, the ethnic minority population rose from 12.9859 million to 15.8608 million, an increase of 2.8749 million, an increase of 22.14%; among them, the Uygur population rose from 10.1715million to 12.7184 million, an increase of 2.5469 million, an increase of 25.04%. During the same period, the Han population rose from 8.8299 million in 2010 to 9.0068 million in 2018, an increase of 0.1769 million or 2.0%. In summary, the growth rate of the Uygur population inXinjiang is not only higher than that of the entire Xinjiang population, it is also higher than the growth rate of the minority population inXinjiang, and it is significantly higher than the growth rate of the Han population inXinjiang.

Lie No.4:"Net population change for Kashgar and Hotan was even lower, at 0.22‰ (and -0.25‰ for all minority counties). Meanwhile,increases in permanent resident populations boosted estimated net population change in Han majority counties to 7.42‰."(Quoted from Adrian Zenz's report.)

When debunking Lie No.3, we have expatiated the population data of Xinjiang's ethnic groups over the past 40 years, so I will not repeat it here. One thing to be sure of is that Adrian Zenz's statement of "increases in permanent resident populations boosted estimated net population change in Han majority counties to 7.42‰" is groundless, with neither fact nor data to support. Concerning the low net population growth rate mentioned by Adrian Zenz, according to the statistics released by the Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the natural population growth rates of all cities and counties in south Xinjiang's four prefectures remained positive in 2018. According to the data in Table 3, it can be calculated that the average natural population growth rate of the 28 counties in the four prefectures in south Xinjiang is 4.80‰. To be specific, the average natural population growth rate ofKashgar's 11 counties is 5.53‰, Aksu's 7 counties 4.48‰, Hotan's 7 counties 2.94‰, Kizilsu's 3 counties 7.25‰.

According tothe above analysis, neitherbased ontheaverage natural population growth rate of the 28 counties in south Xinjiang's four prefectures (4.80‰) nor onthe average natural population growth rates of the counties under the four prefectures can we draw a conclusion that the net population growth rate is "-0.25‰ for all minority counties" as Adrian Zenz put it. His statement that "net population change for Kashgar and Hotan was even lower, at 0.22‰" is also inconsistent with the actual situation in Kashgar and Hotan. It is against the spirit of science that he uses false data to substantiate his report for the purpose of defaming China.

Table 3: Natural population growth rate in south Xinjiang in 2018Unit:

Source: Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Lie No.5: "For 2020, one Uygur region set an unprecedented near-zero population growth target: a mere 1.05 per mille, compared to an already low 11.45 per mille in 2018."(Quoted from Adrian Zenz's report.)

Again, it turns out that Adrian Zenz tampered with the figures of relevant documents released by Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture to complete his report. As can be seeninthe budget report from the Health Commission of Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture in Chart 2, under the first-level target "Completion target", the natural population growth rate of the second-level target "Quality" is set at 1.05%. It is worth noting here that the unit used in this document is per cent. In other words, when the unit is converted from per cent to per mille, the natural population growth rate should be 10.5‰. When debunking Lie No.2, we have mentioned thenatural population growth rate of Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture in 2018 is 11.45‰, which means the rate mentioned this document is reduced by only 0.95 per-millage. Therefore, Adrian Zenz's statement that the natural population growth rate is "a mere 1.05 per mille, compared to an already low 11.45 per mille in 2018" is actually a confusion of measurement unit so as to fabricate lies in his report.

Chart 1: Expenditure&performance target of Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture

Source: Health Commission of Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture

From the above "viewpoints" ofAdrian Zenz, we can see that in order to make the lies in his report appear authentic, he has adopted such methods as arbitrarily tampering with data, confusing measurement units, using ambiguous concepts and being vague about sources, etc. Moreover, Adrian Zenz never indicated the name and source of the government documents he mentioned in his report, let alone basic introductions to the reliability and authenticity of the documents. In addition, there is no further elaboration of the relevant documents in the full text, making the sources of his so-called "systematic analysis of government documents" unreliable. We are even wondering whether the data sources were simply made up to support his arguments.

II. Present truth based on facts

Population isconsidered endogenous to economic growth, and is closely related to economic and social development. Populationsituationplays an importantrole in optimizing resource allocation, promoting trade circulation and enhancing economic vitality. The economic and social development of Xinjiang bears on the well-being of the people of all ethnic groups there, and the populationsituationof all ethnic groups is of great significance to the economic and social development of Xinjiang.

1. Analysis of Xinjiang's population situation based on population growth trend

According to the statistics, from the change trend of the total population at the end of the year inXinjiang, the total population of Xinjiang at the end of 2010 was 21.8158 million, and the total population of Xinjiang at the end of 2018 was 24.8676 million. Compared with 2010, the total population of Xinjiang at the end of 2018 increased by 3.0518 million.Judging from the changing trend of the Uygur population inXinjiang, the Uygur population in Xinjiang was 10.1715 million in 2010, and the Uygur population in Xinjiang was 12.7184 million in 2018. Compared with 2010, the Xinjiang Uygur population increased by 2.5469million in 2018. Judging from the changing trend of the Han population in Xinjiang, the Han population in Xinjiang was 8.8299 million in 2010, and the Han population in Xinjiang was 9.0068 million in 2018. Compared with 2010, the Han population in Xinjiang increased by 0.1769 million in 2018. It can be seen that both the total population of Xinjiang at the end of the year, the Uygur population and the Han population are all on the rise.

Concerning the health development of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, since the founding ofthePeople's Republic of China in 1949, physical fitness of the ethnic populations in Xinjiang has been greatly improved thanks to the rapid development of the medical and health care system. According to the statistics released by the Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the death rate in Xinjiang dropped from 20.82‰ in 1949 to 4.56‰ in 2018, a drop of 16.26‰. It demonstratesthatthe right to health of Xinjiang's ethnic populations has been effectively protected.

2. Analysis of Xinjiang's population situation based on population structure

According to the data released by the Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, over the 40 years from 1978 to 2018, the ratio of male to female in Xinjiang remained stable. As Table5 shows, from 1978 to 2017, the male population in Xinjiang remained slightly larger than the female population. In 2018, the female population in Xinjiang surpassed the male population for the first time in 40 years. According to the statistics, in 2018, there were 12.3983 million men in Xinjiang, accounting for 49.86% of the total population; the female population was 12.4693 million, accounting for 50.14%. However, looking at the gender composition in Xinjiang over the past 40 years, the proportion of maletofemale remained an overall balance. Therefore,we can say gender selection is almost non-existent in Xinjiang.

Table 4: Xinjiang’s gender composition in main years from 1978-2008

Unit: million, %

Source: Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

3. Analysis of Xinjiang's population situation based on educational levels

A thriving education makes a thriving country and a powerful education makes a powerful country. Thesituationof higher education is an important indicator of a country or region'sdevelopmentand potential. Presently, Xinjiang is in the golden period of development, and the need for science and talents becomes more urgent than ever. According to the Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the number of students in Xinjiang's institutions of higher learning was 10,229 in 1978, and the figure rose to 398,751 in 2018. That is to say, from 1978 to 2018, the number of students in institutions of higher learning in Xinjiang increased by 388,522. From a diachronic perspective, as shown in Chart 3, the number of students in institutions of higher learning in Xinjiang has been increasing year by year since 1978. The number went straight upespeciallyafter2000.The datasuggeststhatthe right to education of people of all ethnic groups inXinjiang has been effectively protected.

Chart 2: Number of students in Xinjiang's institutions of higher learning from 1978 -2018

Source:Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

III. Conclusion

To respect and protect human rights is prescribed by the Constitution of China. At present, China's Xinjiang has made new progress in the cause of human rights. However, some western politicians and anti-China "scholars" are fabricating all kinds of lies relating to Xinjiang affairs and other Chinese affairs out of ideological bias or other ulterior purposes. No matter how the lies are beautified, they will always be debunked when faced with the truth. Throughan analysis ofthe populationdata, this paperoffers a clear presentation ofXinjiang’s actualpopulationsituation. It is undoubtedly a powerful response to the western politicians and "scholars" smearing Xinjiang's human rights situation from the perspective of population.

As a product of historical conditions, human rights is bound to develop with the development of historical conditions. At present, Xinjiang is in the golden period of prosperity and development. The rapid economic development in Xinjiang has laid a solid material foundation to the cause of human rights in Xinjiang, andthe harmonious and stable society have provided favorable social conditions. The positive momentum of Xinjiang's populationsituationis a strong proof that the human rights of people of all ethnicities in Xinjiang have been guaranteed and promoted all the time. The people of all ethnicities in Xinjiang have a common goal of pushing for continuous progress of human rights, and they will work together to strengthen the protection of human rights and promote the progress of human rights among people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang.

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